Mechanisms of Speciation

The southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is a large sea bird of the southern oceans. The northern giant petrel (Macronectes halli) is a large predatory seabird of the northern seas. These two kinds of birds make up the Macronectes genus. The Southern Giant Petrel is the largest Procellariidae, it measures 34-39 inches with a wingspan of 73-81 inches. Petrels have very a large yellow bill with a green tip and grey brown legs. The petrel can be dark which resembles the Northern Giant Petrel or it can be light coloured. The Northern Giant Petrel is usually 35  inches in length, their feathers are grey-brown on the body and a light coloured head. The Northern Giant Petrel’s bill is 3.5-4.1 inches long on average and is a pinkish yellow with a brown tip and grey eyes. This species is dark but darkens as the bird ages. Both Giant Petrels have legs that are stronger so they can move around on land easier. When this specie flies it has a hunchback appearance. This specie can be distinguished by the colour of their bill tip: greenish tip is the Southern Giant Petrel and a reddish tip is the Northern Giant Petrel. This specie produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus, this is used against predators. They also have a salt gland that is above the nasal passage that helps them breath while near the ocean water. The Northern Giant Petrel and the Southern Giant Petrel both feed on decaying flesh of dead animals, krill, discarded fish and waste from ships. The birds start breeding on a average of 10 years of age, on islands in colonies. The birds share some islands to breed but the Southern Giant Petrel breeds six weeks earlier and have a lower range of distance they will travel to breed. The Southern Giant Petrel’s occurrence range is 36,000,000 km2 whereas the Northern Giant Petrel’s occurrence range is 82,600,000 km2.. The birds live in different environments over the water and both birds breed on different islands possibly with other species. The different temperatures and climate change of the habitat would change the life and the appearance of the bird. The Southern Giant Petrel would be used to the southern conditions whereas the Northern Giant Petrel would be used to the northern conditions. Mechanisms of speciation that I can use is the mechanisms of change. The migration of the birds changed the gene flow because of the breeding grounds, this caused the evolution of a different specie. Descent is another, the genes from the ancestors of the Southern and Northern Giant Petrel have been passed down gene by gene, it would become instinct to live in either the south of the north. The mechanisms of speciation take a huge place in solving the changes in species and genes, which is very important for scientific research.    220px-Macronectes_halli_-Salisbury_Plain,_South_Georgia,_British_Overseas_Territories,_UK-8home

Ecosystem Restoration

Biodiversity is short for biodiversity. It is the variety of life found on Earth and all the natural processes. Biodiversity includes ecosystem, genetic diversity, and the connections between these and all species. Biodiversity is very important because it is a major part of our ecosystem. If one little part of a diversity changes it could affect huge parts of our world. Every part of biodiversity is necessary to support something else, its like a continuous chain of necessary support. SER (Society for ecological restoration), founded in 1987, is a non profit organization that is full of individual and partner organizations from around the world who work towards repairing and the recovering the decreasing biodiversity on earth. SER also works towards teaching more people the importance of biodiversity. SER has members in more 60 nations and networks serving states, provinces and regions of North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australia. SER is also working on expanding into Asia and Africa. SER’s mission is to promote ecological restoration, their major focus is on increasing the science and practice of ecological restoration as a key to restore biodiversity. SER is trying to make a healthy relationship between nature and culture. SERs project is to restore the cloud forests. Cloud forests are ecosystems of abundance (biodiversity, water, non timber forest products. My analysis of this project Is that they are doing a fantastic job on making SER very well known and are doing an amazing job of working towards a better future for biodiversity. SER could improve on making the cloud forests restoration project more known and bigger published to the public. The short term impacts of this project could be making some people aware of the dangers biodiversity decreases but then most people forget the real importance. The long term will be when more than 60 nations contribute in SER and work together to fully restore biodiversity in cloud forests to make earth have a brighter future. Another long term impact would be the smallest changes in biodiversity rather than huge changes which would highly affect climate change and weather. SER is working their hardest to change the outcome of our biodiversity on our planet and I wish them good luck.


Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance is a form of drug resistance, can survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics. The causes are the low levels of antibiotics that already exist inside the body, that has spread throughout the body. To try and prevent antibiotic resistance people can only use rational amounts and watch how much antibiotics are being used so your body doesn’t start to become immune to the drugs. In most of the villages in Fiji, nature is a huge part in the health care of Fiji. Many villages use the plants as medicine to help the weak and sick. The plants being natural would have less chemical amount which would put less chemicals in the humans body making the antibiotic resistance lower. In some cases where antibiotics and certain drugs are necessary for survival your body would not be as use to the drugs therefor the person would have less of an resistance. In Canada, Toronto city, There is no huge natural forests that every leaf could be used for medicine. Drugs are used on a daily in Toronto in hospitals, drug stores (drugs can be bought) and clinics. People in Canada would be using antibiotics more than the Fijians. In the article “Death from Multi-Resistant Shigellosis in Fiji Islands” I have researched the cause of antibiotic resistance to increase in recent years, it has increased because antibiotics because more common and were being used more often as usual and the Fijians bodies were not used to the drugs. Inappropriate use of the drugs like over usage and using it when not needed (becoming addicted) can cause Antibiotic Resistance.

Koroniva Research Station- Control of mealy bugs

Today I learned some interesting facts about the mealy bugs. A mealy bug is a serious pest in many plants that can be found on leaves all over. They feed by sucking out sap. Mealy bugs are mobile and easily spread by crawling, dropping from taller plants and floating on air currents. Mealy bugs have a soft body that is covered with white cotton like filaments, it can be oval, flat, or globular shaped and have the body length of 1-4mm. The mealy bug has 3 life stages: eggs, larvae and adult. Mealy bugs have a few predators: lacewings and ladybird beetles. Mealy bugs can be controlled using isopropyl alcohol, horticultural oil, insecticidal soaps and mineral oil. That is what I learned on my great adventure today.

Prokaryotes in Fiji

Phototropic prokaryotes

Phototropic prokaryotes are found in shallow coral reefs or marine life areas, obtain energy from the sun. Phototropic prokaryotes are bacteria and most are autotrophs. How the Phototropic prokaryotes gets its energy is because of the process of photosynthesis. Differences are- Prokaryotes cell is a bacteria whereas the Eukaryotes cell is a animal, fungi or plant. Eukaryotes cell is from the Protista kingdom whereas Prokaryotes is from the Achaea kingdom. Similarities- They both have ribosome and both have DNA.

Plant Study


The main parts of the sugarcane plant are the stalk, leaf, and root system. The stalk of the plant has segments called joints, joints are made up of nodes and an internode. The node is the joint where the leaf attaches to the stalk of the plant and where the root primordial and buds are located. The buds are attached to the root joint of the node, which are embryonic shoots that have miniature small leaves. The external small leaves are scales.

The leaf of the sugarcane is separated into two parts: sheath and blade which are separated by a blade joint. The sheath extends over one internode. The leaves attached to the nodes that form two ranks on either side. The mature sugarcane plant’s upper leaf surface average is 0.5m2 and the number of leaves per stalk is approximately 10 depending on conditions. There is a variety of characteristics for colour, size and shape of the blade joints of a mature plant.

The root system function is it enables the intake of water and nutrients from the soil than it anchors the plant into the ground for support. Two types of roots will form from the planted seed. The set roots that grow from the root that are thin and branch higher on the plant. The shoot roots grow In the lower area of the plant and are thick, less branched roots.


It is necessary for immature sugarcane to mots of moisture and protection from weeds. The sugarcane farmers use a cultivator implement, it is hooked onto the back of a tractor in areas where sugarcane is being grown to mess up the soil and to break apart weeds. The sugarcane also needs lots of sunlight and water, when the sugarcane grows tall the sunlight reaches the foot of the plant less and less as it grows, which prevents weeds to grow.


Sugarcane is a cross-pollinating species but reproduction happens at low levels. Sugarcane flowers have reduced male fertility, but they are rarely mal sterile. Sugarcane pollen is dispersed by wind and is very small. The wind will spread the pollen into male fertility areas so sugar canes will be reproduced.


Comparative Anatomy

The sea turtle and a dolphin both have a respiratory system. In both respiratory systems 2 lungs (lungs change oxygen into carbon dioxide, allowing the animal to breath) and a larynx is present. All though dolphins use their blow hole to breath air whereas sea turtles use their nostrils to breath. This is huge difference in the respiratory system that makes the sea turtle and the dolphin different from one another.


The sea turtles skeleton structure at the top of it has a vertebra (allows the back to move around and not be stable in one place) and so does the dolphin. The sea turtle and the dolphin both have a skull (the head of the dolphin holds the control center of the animal, the brain) and ribs (keep a hold of the animal together). The difference between the animals in the skeleton system is the turtle has a shell on their back made of nucal plates and neural plates. They use this shell for protection against predators and for camouflage. The dolphin only has a smooth external skin to cover them (the external layer used for protection). The seas turtle also has a tail vertebrae but the dolphin does not have one for its tail. The tail bones allow the animal the move the tail to swim at different pastes in the water. The sea turtle has both internal and external skeleton whereas the dolphin does not, only internal.


The evolution of the dolphin is unknown. The evolution of these animals have changed because of the need to adapt to the new circumstances and the surroundings whereas humans have to do the same to survive.dolphin anatomyUnknown-1IMG_3833

Monocot or Dicot


I know this plant is a dicot because it has 4 petals and the veins are like an net going outwards form the center line. Dicots are low and so was this plant that is another indicator that this plant is a dicot



I know this plant is a monocot because it has 6 petals and the veins are parallel. The petals I find are a major way to tell if the plant is dicot or monocot, it is a simple easy way to make the comparison. Monocots are higher (trees, flowering bushes).


Both the monocot and dicot have leaves, petals and flowers.Unknown